So NT Wright (formerly Bishop of Durham and now Research Professor of New Testament and Early Christianity at St Mary’s College, St Andrews) has declared in the Times newspaper (£) that the argument for women Bishops is to be found in the Bible.
We applaud his rejection of the cries of both media and politicians that the Church must ‘move with the times’ and modernise. CS Lewis was right to reject the myth of moral progress which he described as ‘chronological snobbery’.
So far so good. However Wright’s defence of women Bishops from the text of the Bible is quite something to behold. He writes ‘The other lie to nail is that people who “believe in the Bible” or who “take it literally” will oppose women’s ordination. Rubbish.’
Nathaniel Dimock in his work on the Atonement argues that three tests can be applied to assess the validity of an interpretation of the Bible. A doctrine should be regarded as orthodox if it can be demonstrated from the Scriptures, but further, interpretations should also be weighed against the church’s teaching across the centuries. Dimock as a good evangelical believed in Sola Scriptura and tradition is in no way a final authority but nevertheless we are right to ask whether a view of the Bible is biblical if it is also not also primitive and catholic.
By Biblical we mean it must find clear support in the Bible itself. By primitive Dimock means we should look to see whether such an interpretation has been accepted from the earliest times of the church and catholic meaning it should have widespread support across the ages of the church. Clearly doctrines (such as penal substitutionary atonement which Dimock defends) are not taught with the same frequency and clarity across all ages but Dimock ably demonstrates a form of the doctrine present in the church from the earliest times to the present day. If a doctrine is clearly taught in the Bible, so much so that it should be regarded as the correct interpretation over other views, we should expect to find the church affirming it to some degree at points throughout history.
So what should we think of Wright’s approach, maintaining as he does, that a doctrine held nowhere in the church for the first 2000 of its existence should be accepted as Biblical? Further a doctrine still rejected by the vast majority of Christians across the world? I hope he can at least understand the scepticism of many when his judgement is questioned.
Should we not also be a bit apprehensive when it comes to embracing a novel 21st century interpretation that just so happens fits exactly the mood of our own times. It makes me, at least, think there might be some attempt to make an idea ‘fit’ the text at all costs.
We shouldn’t say that Wright is simply wrong it’s rather that his arguments need to be a great deal more substantial than they are if he wishes to persuade that Christians have failed, for 2000 years, to understand and interpret the text of the Bible correctly.
Christians often use the phrase in the world but not of the world (something drawn from Jesus’ own words in John 17:11 and 16}. It encapsulates that difficult responsibility for Christians to be a visible and yet distinctive presence in the midst of our communities.
Tim Keller in his book Center Church describes something of what this might look like:
We will have an impact for the gospel if we are like those around us yet profoundly unlike them at the same time, all the while remaining very visible and engaged.
1. Christians are to be in the world
Tim Keller writes;
So, first of all, Christians must be like their neighbors in the food they eat and clothes they wear, their dialect, general appearance, work life, recreational and cultural activities, and civic engagement. They participate fully in life with their neighbors. Christians should also be like their neighbors with regard to excellence. That is, Christians should be very good at what others want to be good at. They should be skillful, diligent, resourceful, and disciplined. In short, Christians in a particular community should—at first glance—look reassuringly similar to the other people in the neighborhood. This opens up nonbelievers to any discussion of faith, because they recognize the believers as people who live in and understand their world. It also, eventually, gives them a glimpse of what they could look like if they became believers.
Christians are not to be of the world
Second, Christians must be also unlike their neighbors. In key ways, the early Christians were startlingly different from their neighbors; it should be no different for us today. Christians should be marked by integrity. Believers must be known for being scrupulously honest, transparent, and fair. Followers of Christ should also be marked by generosity. If employers, they should take less personal profit so customers and employees have more pay. As citizens, they should be philanthropic and generous with their time and with the money they donate for the needy. They should consider living below their potential lifestyle level. Believers should also be known for their hospitality, welcoming others into their homes, especially neighbors and people with needs. They should be marked by sympathy and avoid being known as self-serving or even ruthless in business or personal dealings. They should be marked by an unusual willingness to forgive and seek reconciliation, not by a vengeful or spiteful spirit.
In addition to these character qualities, Christians should be marked by clear countercultural values and practices. Believers should practice chastity and live consistently in light of the biblical sexual ethic. Those outside the church know this ethic—no sex outside of marriage—and any inconsistency in this area can destroy a believer’s credibility as a Christian.
That is how Christians are to be in the world and not of the world at one and the same time.
But what if…
Reading Keller on this issue reminded me of a talk I heard a few years ago which highlighted that perhaps the greatest danger is one we hardly ever spot. We spot the danger of Christians being in the world AND of the world (compromise), we are wary of Christians NOT in the world and not of it (retreat) but do we recognise the double-danger of Christians not in the world and YET of the world!
How does that work?
It is possible for Christians and church communities to cut themselves off from the world and retreat into glorious isolationism and yet at the same time exhibit all of the traits of worldliness behind our locked doors. In such a situation the church is unchanged by the gospel and displays all the characteristics of the world. Maybe that means for some being as individualistic in our disregard for the need of others, as materialistic in our attitude to money, as self-obsessed so that the focus of our lives is not the gospel to the lost but our own sense of well-being and comfort.
What a tragedy when Christians are not in the world and yet undoubtedly of the world.
St Helen’s Bishopsgate is the church where I first heard the Bible preached and where through that preaching I became a Christian. Today sees the launch of a new resource from St. Helen’s entitled Preaching matters and promises to offer wisdom for all those who share in the awesome responsibility of proclaiming God’s word.
Here’s William Taylor’s introduction:
A while ago I stumbled across an extract from a CH Spurgeon sermon in which he urges his congregation to pray for his preaching. Without it, he said, his preaching was useless.
Here’s a great post from Joe Thorn giving you 4 different things you could be praying for your pastor this weekend.
GK Chesterton on why without constant attention the very things we want to preserve will be lost;
All conservatism is based upon the idea that if you leave things alone you leave them as they are. But you do not. If you leave a thing alone you leave it to a torrent of change. If you leave a white fence post alone it will soon be a black post. If you particularly want it to be white you must be always painting it again; that is, you must be always having a revolution. Briefly,if you want the old white post you must have a new white post.
The church is to change nothing of its message. Our goal is to keep an old white post — the unchanging truth about Christ. But to keep it we cannot afford to leave things alone. A great deal of work needs to go in to finding new and effective ways of communicating the same old message. To quote Chesterton we ‘must be always painting it again.’
Shall I give you yet another reason why you should pray? I have preached my very heart out. I could not say any more than I have said. Will not your prayers accomplish that which my preaching fails to do? Is it not likely that the Church has been putting forth its preaching hand but not its praying hand? Oh dear friends! Let us agonize in prayer.
When we want what others have community begins to fall apart
Why do we prefer to compare ourselves with those who have more than we have rather than comparing ourselves with those who have less? When we choose to covet what others have we begin comparison becomes a destructive influence. Rather than love our neighbour, we become envious of our neighbour.
Coveting is a gate-way to all kinds of sin. We break commandments 5 to 9 because we have broke commandment 10 first. Why do we steal, lie, murder, commit adultery, etc. because we need to have what is not ours and will do anything to get it.
James has something to say in 4:1-2 about the relationship between coveting, envy and damage to the church; What causes fights and quarrels among you? Don’t they come from your desires that battle within you? 2 You want something but don’t get it. You kill and covet, but you cannot have what you want. You quarrel and fight.
James describes, in these verses, how wrong desires have the power to destroy Christian community. (It is important to note that ‘you kill’ in v.2 is not a reference to literal murder but a powerful metaphor to describe real anger and deep hostility.)
Philip Ryken comments: Arguments, factions, hatred & plotting revenge…you can trace them all back to the desperate desire to want more than we have, to want what God has chosen to give to others and not you..whether it be their position or their possessions.
Thomas Manton writes: Covetousness makes people have this sort of sour disposition. Covetousness may be known by its companions – fighting and envy.
In yesterday’s post Charles Saatchi wanted to suggest that coveting is harmless sin but the truth is that a preoccupation with what others have is a way of thinking that will harm us and it will harm the church. That is why God says ‘no’ to it.
We break the 10th commandment by coveting what others have
The easiest way to spot a coveting heart is how we use our money and how much debt we are willing to amount in order to have what others have. When we read the warnings of Scripture we see how deadly this is. Why not read 1 Timothy 6:6-11, Hebrews 13:5 & Luke 12:15 and ask yourself:
How does your use of money reveal the desires of your hearts?
How tempted are we to get into debt (or further into debt) so we can have what others have?
We break the 10th commandment by coveting who other people are
Much coveting is the coveting of the life-style of others or the gifts and aptitudes of others or perhaps the circumstances and situation of others. In the secular world we see it in all the celebrity lifestyle magazines and in the quest for fame in ‘X’ factor but there are plenty of examples from church life of how we envy and want what others have got.
In 1 Corinthian 12:14-20 Paul challenges Christians to stop comparing themselves to others. Calvin writes in his commentary on 1 Corinthians each member should be content with its own place and relative position, and not be envious of others.
Don’t you find it all to easy to want to be someone else at church, or in the wider church?
So, who do you want to be and why?
Do you want to learn from them or simply wish you could be them, even replace them?
How does this covetous desire affect our relationships with those other people?
Thomas Manton warns of the extraordinary power of desire to destroy a church; Self-love is the root of all three; it makes us covet and desire what is good and excellent, and it makes us envy others for enjoying it, and then to break all bonds of duty and love so that we may snatch it from them.
In a recent blog post my very good friend John Stevens made some comments about the presence of non-Christians in church services. So for example he writes: We need to face up to the fact that we have to take the gospel to people, and not just invite them to come to where we preach it.
I think to a man we would all a big amen to that. No church can afford to limit its evangelism to a ‘they have to come to us’ rather than a ‘we go to them’ model.
But John goes further than the strategic question of how best to gain the gospel a hearing to state a theological conviction that ‘inviting to church’ is not how we should look, primarily, to do our evangelism. He writes:
This doesn’t seem to be the New Testament model. In the NT, church” is the gathering for committed believers, designed to encourage and edify them. Occasionally an unbeliever might come in amongst them (1 Corinthians 14v24). The gospel is to be taken and proclaimed outside of the church
I want to push a little further so for what it’s worth here is the first of two posts on Why church services need to be the primary focus for our evangelism. I want to make the case that church ought to be the primary place for our evangelism both for the sake of the non-Christian AND for the sake of the Christian. Today I’ll focus on the non-Christian.
For the sake of the non-Christian
Although there are lots of ways in which a non-Christian can here the gospel preached through personal evangelism, enquirer courses, social or evangelistic events, the non-Christian needs to hear the gospel preached to the Christian and for that they need to be in a predominantly Christian environment.
Why do I say that? The same gospel of justification is God’s means of both conversion and transformation. It changes the lives of non-Christians and Christians and the non-Christian is greatly helped towards faith in Christ when they hear something of why and how the gospel is God’s power to not only save but to transform. They grasp how the gospel sets you free from idols of self (money, sex or power) they learn how forgiveness towards another human is possible because the resources for forgiveness are there in the gospel, they grasp how the gospel enables and strengthens marriage as the Christian is challenged from the Bible to love their wives as Christ has loved the church.
No-one has modelled preaching the gospel to Christian and non-Christian at the same time in recent years than Tim Keller. He has demonstrated that an attractional model can work in an extremely secular, hostile environment. It takes a great deal of skill and almost a whole new method of preaching to do this well but it works. New Frontiers, perhaps the fastest growing Reformed church-movement in the UK works almost entirely on this model too and God has greatly blessed their work.
As we teach non-Christians how the gospel of grace saves (justification) so they know exactly what response is required of them but then as we teach Christians how the gospel of grace continues to save (working out salvation in sanctification) so non-Christians grasp the life-changing, transformative power that is in the gospel.
In my experience non-Christians are thinking ‘what difference does the gospel make’, ‘how does it work’, ‘what impact would it have on my life’, as they listen in to preaching aimed at the Christian so they learn in real time and through real experience the answer to their questions.
Secondly, as Francis Schaeffer once said the greatest apologetic is love. Only as a non-Christian enters the Christian community can they see, taste and experience both how Christians love one another and also how loved and welcome they are amongst God’s people. How many non-Christians upon conversion talk of how this dynamic of love and acceptance has struck them as unique to the church?The market-place, or the office water-cooler for that matter, is simply not a place where this dynamic can be experienced.
Thirdly, the unity in diversity of God’s new community is unlike anything we can experience anywhere else. A church full of all sorts of people, across all cultural divides and age and race barriers is a phenomena that is humanly inexplicable. Here is the gospel in glorious technicolour! We need to invite non-Christians to see it for themselves.
I could go on with at least three more reasons but I think this is enough for now.
I’m not surprised that more people are converted at City Church by coming along to our church Sunday by Sunday than by attending A Passion for Life (not that I am anything but an enthusiastic supporter of such initiatives!).
What does this mean for City Church Birmingham?
We expect non-Christians to be present in our services.
We speak as if non-Christians are present
We work very hard in our sermons to speak to both Christian and non-Christian at the same time.
We encourage Christians to simply bring their friends and they do!
One final reflection: I think the attractional model works well amongst younger people in urban contexts than some other settings. I agree with John that it is harder to get people into churches than a generation ago but in a city like Birmingham where 37% of our population is 25 or under, church remains my primary focus for evangelism.
I was converted when a friend had the courage to invite me to go with him to a normal Sunday service and I thank God that he did.
Dave Harvey has a new book Am I Called: The summons to pastoral ministry. Jim Packer writes ‘This is the fullest, most realistic, down-to-earth, and genuinely spiritual exploration of God’s call to pastoral ministry that I know. I recommend it most highly.”
This interview on BetweenTwoWorlds with Dave is a very helpful introduction to the book and to the questions we need to ask ourselves as we consider full-time ministry.
To read Matt Chandler’s foreword and the first chapter of the book go here.
The first really hard lesson I learned in the Christian life was to let God be God; to accept his sovereign right to rule my life and so be ready to accept as from his hand whatever circumstances came my way.
The second hardest lesson I learnt was to love Christ more than my life and therefore be ready to surrender my life to being his servant.
My perfect life, my perfect Christian life, had always looked something like ‘live in a nice house, with a good career, a reasonable pension, a happy marriage, successful kids and a fulfilling Christian life.’
Part of my struggle in learning to love Christ more than life was in putting aside my own interests, time and resources in the service of others. Being his servant didn’t just mean battling sin and buying commentaries. It meant the needs of others before my own.
Where this bites then is not in service but in sacrificing in order to serve. Giving up stuff I want and preferring to serve others.
How can we be the church, a community of God’s people, where each of us is set free – in the heart — from a life of self-concern and self-promotion to live lives of self-forgetfulness in which we delight to serve one another for Christ’s sake?
How can that ever be the life I want to live?
On Sunday morning, preaching at City Church, I preached for the first time on the parable of the workers in the Vineyard in Matthew 20 and what we learned is that the secret of serving others comes when we;
Refuse to compare yourself to others
The parable is a story designed to change your perspective on your life and it works on you by rooting out of your heart and mine the problem of envy.
What stops us giving our lives in wholehearted service of our King? What stops us from pouring out our lives in the service of others? Isn’t it that we are continually comparing ourselves to others, competing with others? We continually assess how we are doing, continually looking at levels of accomplishment. It’s what we find Jesus’ own disciples doing just a few verses later! And envy stops you from serving others.
You will never be free to serve others until you are free from comparing yourself to others
Maybe we should note well what Jesus says both immediately before and at the end of the parable – 19:30 and 20:36. In the kingdom of heaven, in the gospel we can stop comparing ourselves to others.
How the parable works
It’s harvest time and a farmer is looking to hire people. At the beginning of the day he hires men and agrees to pay them a day’s wages. In v.3 he returns to the market place a couple of hours later and hires a few more men. Come and work for me and I will v.4 ‘pay you whatever is right’
Our farmer goes out again at the 6th, 9th and 11th hour hires more workers and then at the end of the day the farmer gives them their salary.
Starting with the last he pays them something they haven’t earned, something they haven’t deserved a full day’s wage – a denarius. You can imagine what the other workers are thinking at this point, wow this farmer pays bonuses I wonder what we’re going to get!
But as each worker steps forward he pays each of the others exactly the same wage – a denarius. You can imagine what they are thinking now, after all a day’s farming in the heat of the Palestinian day was really hard and so getting the same wage (v.11) they began to grumble against the landowner.
What’s the issue for them?
They complain to the farmer, v.12, ‘you have made them equal to us’. Here is envy at work, building resentment!
No doubt under an EU directive such behaviour would have been illegal. They would have been on the phone to their union representatives. As one commentator writes ‘Little seems more unequal than the equal treatment of unequals!’
How do you react to this parable? Do you have some sympathy with the workers? Of course we do because it looks like an injustice on the part of the farmer?
Here’s the point of the parable: our natural way of looking at life leads us to compare ourselves with others and find fault with God.
After all the only reasons the workers complain is not because of what they receive from the farmer but what they receive from the farmer in comparison to others!
To the hard workers he says, v.13, I gave you what was fair, harking back to v.4. If he had employed everyone for a day, and given a day’s wages everyone would have left satisfied, happy with their lot.
It’s not that he has been unfair to them, but that he has been more than fair to others that bugs them. But why can’t the landowner do as he pleases with his wealth. He rightly says ‘Don’t I have the right to do what I want with my own money?’
He chooses to be generous, gracious, to the last group of workers. Without giving the late workers a full days wage their families would have gone hungry.
Here is what happens when we live our lives comparing ourselves with others
The landowner says, v.15, ‘are you envious because I was generous?’ Literally, ‘is your eye evil because I am good?’
When we act in church out of selfish ambition, vain conceit, when we refuse to serve others we act from an evil eye. When we resent God’s generosity to others we are saying ‘I can’t be happy when I see God being more generous to others.’
The owner is good because he gives generously, the workers complain because they are jealous. Jealousy, wishing that you had what they had, leads us to blame God rather than praise God.
What is the solution?
To recognise that God has been good to me in calling me into his service and rewarding me for his service.
God has been more kind to me than I deserve and if I don’t deserve anything from God what business is it of mine how God treats others?
You will never be a servant of all until God sets you free from envy of others. You will spend your time comparing yourself to others and asking ‘does this person deserve my help?’ Full of resentment, anxious about what you have received you will divide your energies between those you think deserve your attention and those who don’t.
What set’s you free from comparison is focusing your energies, your prayers and your thoughts on how extraordinarily good God has been to you.
Here are 5 questions (adapted from a sermon by James Boice) to focus your thoughts:
- Why is God’s goodness to others often the occasion for anger in us?
- Why do we find it so difficult to rejoice with others over the good that enters their lives?
- Why do we spend our time calculating how we have deserved better?
- Why are we never satisfied with what we have received from God?
- Why do we always think God owes us more?
How can you actually become a servant of all?
Let the gospel change your perspective on God’s goodness to you and others
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